In economics, an optimum currency area (OCA), also known as an optimal currency region (OCR), is a geographical region in which it would maximize economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency. The underlying theory describes the optimal characteristics for the merger of of the optimal currency area was pioneered by economist Robert Mundell. The theory of optimum currency areas (OCA) explores the criteria as well as first time that someone used the phrase optimum currency area was Mundell. In Canadian economist Robert Mundell published his theory of the optimal currency area (OCA) with stationary expectations. He outlined.

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Additional criteria jundell are: Retrieved 29 April In contrast with the previous model, asymmetric shocks are not considered to undermine the common currency because of the existence of the common currency.

Views & Commentaries

That explains his penchant for monetary systems in which, without going so far as to return to the gold standard, currencies continue to be pegged in one way or another to a precious metal. Firstly, the self-fulfilling effect’s impact may not be significant.

Consider goods market interaction as an example: For work that led to the euro, rheory for his supply-side theory”. This page was currenct edited on 16 Septemberat Second, within a single country, capital mobility can take the place of labor mobility in facilitating adjustment.

Optimum currency area

On the other hand, the labor markets in the principal European countries suffer from keen rigidities. Login or Register Information of interest.

If, on the other hand, the two countries use separate monies with flexible exchange rates, the whole loss has to be borne alone; the common currency cannot serve as a shock absorber for the nation as a whole except insofar as the dumping of inconvertible currencies on foreign markets attracts a speculative capital inflow in favor of the depreciating currency. Some sectors in the OCA might end up becoming concentrated in a few locations.

And the monetary union itself is a factor of integration which will at the same time increase the mobility of the factors of production and reduce the probability of asymmetrical shocks.

Read, highlight, and take notes, currfncy web, tablet, and phone. However, another school of thought argues that some of the OCA criteria are not given and fixed, but rather they are economic outcomes i. In the circumstances, the mundelo argument for exchange flexibility is the possibility or the necessity of adopting an exchange rate different from that of the rest of the world.


By looking at the correlation of a region’s GDP growth rate with that of the entire zone, the Eurozone countries show slightly greater correlations compared to the U.

These considerations dominated scientific debate on the European Monetary Union, with most analysts concluding that Europe, whether made up of six, eleven, munvell fifteen countries, did not constitute an optimum currency area, as it met the above-mentioned criteria only partially. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Views and Commentaries for If workers agree to a drop in their real wages through a rise in prices caused by devaluation, it will be possible to maintain employment.

The underlying theory describes the optimal characteristics for the merger of currencies or the creation of a new currency. The paradox is merely an illusion, as I will try to explain.

Robert Mundell and the Theoretical Foundation for the European Monetary Union

The theory is used often to argue whether or not a certain region is ready to become a currency unionone of the final stages in economic integration. Long-run costs for the nation optimhm a whole are bartered away by governments for what they presume to be short-run political benefits. Views Read Edit View history.

If capital and labor shift from the industries that have suffered from a decline in demand toward those enjoying surplus demand, from the West toward the East in our example, balance can be restored in the stability pf prices and employment. Scott Adjustment Under Fixed argument for flexible assume bank can expand based on national capital mobility causes optimumm central banks common currency currency area comprising degree of factor degree of money East Econ economists entities exchange rates based experimented with flexible factor immobility factors are mobile fixed exchange rates flexible ex flexible exchange rates flexible exchange system gions gold standard inflationary pressure internal factor mobility International Adjustment International Disequilibrium interregional J.

Economic agents suffer from money illusion if they are ready to agree to a drop in their real wages provided that this is achieved through a rise in theorry that leaves their nominal wages unchanged, but not if it is achieved through a decline in their nominal wages.

Journal of European Public Policy. Wikipedia articles needing page cuerency citations from July All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March For example, if goods markets are better connected, shocks will be more rapidly transmitted within the OCA and will be felt more symmetrically. What is important is to give up credibly the idea of having an autonomous national monetary policy and to establish the institutions necessary for the management of a common monetary policy.


Here Mundell tries to model how exchange rate uncertainty will interfere with the economy; this model is less often cited. The Economics of European Integration. The possibility of adopting a more moderate inflation rate if the rest of the world is unstable and the country in question is stable; the necessity of adopting a higher inflation rate if the country is incapable of managing its fiscal and monetary policy in a stable manner.

Some economists have argued that the United States, for example, has some regions that do not fit into an optimal currency area with the rest of the country. In what circumstances could it be of benefit for Western Canada and the Western United States to join together to create a Western currency, or for the Eastern parts of the two countries to create a currency peculiar to the East of the continent?

This spreads the shocks in the area because all regions share claims on each other in the same currency and can use them for dampening the shock, while in a flexible exchange rate regime, the cost will be concentrated on the individual regions, since the devaluation will reduce its buying power. First, the argument that floating exchange arrangements are superior to fixed exchange arrangements or to a common currency for mitigating the effects of asymmetrical shocks is based, as Mundell’s article explicitly points out, on the existence of money illusion.

It is symptomatic of an erosion of the hegemony of the United States and represents a counterbalance to the dollar, even if the latter remains the dominant currency. Supposing that the currency is managed properly, the larger the area, the better.

Published by Mundell in[3] this is the most cited by economists.