Rio de Janeiro: ABNT (NBR ) (In Portuguese) 7. Brazilian Association of extract from solid residues. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT (NBR ). Brazilian Association of Technical Norms, in ABNT NBR Procedure for obtention leaching extract of solid wastes (Rio de Janeiro, ), p. 16 8. ABNT NBR , Solid Waste: Classification, Brazilian Association of Technical Standards, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ABNT NBR , Leaching of.
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On the other 10005, samples D, E and F are below the standard. Additions from enamel waste contributed to the increase of physical properties such as burning retraction, mechanical resistance to bending, and decreased water absorption and loss of ignition. Services on Demand Journal. Completion of carbonate species at the goethite surface: Lead is also toxic for other animal cells and plants Menad, Table 4 presents the results of the Raw Residue of the STD and enamel waste, showing that the residue used has a smaller abnr size than the standard mass, directly aiding in the packaging factor, contributing to a better compaction.
Characterisation of fired—clay bricks incorporating biosolids and the effect abny heating rate on properties of bricks. August 24, Correspondence: Cathode ray tube monitors The CRT used avnt television and computer screens represents one of the main sources of e-waste as flat screens have replaced them over the last ten years Lecler et al.
In order to make sure the monitor samples used in this work had similar lead distribution to the ones from previous studies Table 1the three milled glass parts were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence XRF using bant Axios Advanced PANalytical, Almelo, Netherlands. Reducing the amount of pores favoring the reduction of water absorption and the increases of the mechanical resistance. After the burn, the samples were characterized by linear retraction of burning, loss of ignition, mechanical resistance to flexion diametric compression in a universal machine of mechanical tests EMIC model DL and water absorption.
As stated 1005 Okadaa material containing lead may scatter and result in oral intake of the dispersed lead by humans, which ultimately results in health problems. Publications Office of the European Union; It is possible to observe that in the linear retraction of drying the results decrease with the increase of the added waste. For this procedure the weighings of the Standard Mass STD and also of the waste were carried out with a balance electronic mark, model SF with a maximum capacity of 10 kg.
The procedures presented the NBR simulate the leaching that may occur to a non-sheltered waste; a flowchart of the norm is presented in Fig.
Recycling of construction and demolition waste generated by building infrastructure for the production of glassy materials.
This study ranks waste of CRT monitors according to Brazilian NBR ABNT, a norm and performs different detoxification methods to evaluate their efficiency in downgrading a hazardous waste to a non-hazardous waste. The CRT used in television and computer screens represents one of the main sources of e-waste as flat screens have replaced them over the last ten years Lecler et al.
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Changing its characteristics in the finished 100005. This factor anbt the number of researches to increase the incorporation of a series of residues in ceramic mass, 1005 as glass, 1415 ashes of the most diverse sources, 16 mining wastes, 19 sludge from a wide variety of treatment sources, 20 waste from heavy clay ceramic process 23 and other wastes.
The results show all samples are hazardous according to local environmental law NBR due to lead leaching. Such a productive increase demands a large amount of raw material which generates environmental problems related to the scarcity of natural resources.
The panel glass did not present any leached lead, which is logical, since no lead was found in the previous XRF Table 4. NBR A 5. Utilization of waste glass to enhance physical—mechanical properties of fired clay brick.
The structural or heavy clay ceramics industry is a basic activity making civil construction possible, from the simplest to the most sophisticated. Seven CRTs monitors were submitted to the Brazilian standard leaching procedure to evaluate their hazard potential. The ceramic residue used in this work provided by a Brazilian company from Santa Catarina state from the process of abnf and residues of enamels.
The next step was intended to evaluate whether the lead qbnt had been able to convert the CRT from a hazardous waste to a non-hazardous waste according to the Brazilian regulation. Characteristics of fired bricks with co—combustion fly ashes.
Edmond, OK Tel: A history of global metal pollution.
The next step in this study was the removal of lead from the CRT by thermal processes. Where it was possible to decrease the water absorption and increase the mechanical strength.
The pressure inside the tube for samples E and F was set at 1. Abstract Cathode ray tube CRT monitors are electronic equipment mainly made of glass, polymers and metals.
The mechanical strength had a significant increase compared to the standard mass, as the residue content was increased the water absorption decreased and the resistance increased. No part of this content may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means as per the standard guidelines of fair use. MedCrave Group is ardent to provide article reprints at an instant affordable Read more Although the sector has a great environmental degrading potential due to mineral extraction by the high consumption of clay.
Lead hazard evaluation for cathode ray tube monitors in Brazil
10005 waste was classified based on the American methodology SW B, 29 and the Brazilian technical references: These tailings have the potential to be used as an alternative raw material in the manufacture of heavy clay ceramics and therefore, from a manufacturing point of 1005, can be used as a great flux that still generates improvements in the characterization of the final product and gains in sustainable marketing.
The NBR displays a list of known hazardous materials and their characteristics and can be related to the Code of Federal Regulations title 40, subtitle of the United States 40 C. According to Menadthe lead in the CRTs is responsible for the radiation shielding and for stabilizing the glass. At lower levels, iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 0.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. Currently produced ceramic coatings are generally composed of three distinct layers: The results expressed in Figure 1 indicate that samples containing approximately