Joseph Aspdin: building construction: Reintroduction of concrete: Joseph Aspdin patented the first true artificial cement, which he called Portland Cement. Portland Cement – Joseph Aspdin. While preparing to build the Eddystone Lighthouse in , engineer John Smeaton conducted a series of experiments. Joseph Aspdin was an English cement manufacturer who obtained the patent for Portland cement on 21 October Joseph Aspdin (or Aspden) was the.
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Joseph Aspdin December — 20 March was an English cement manufacturer who obtained the patent for Portland cement on 21 October Aspdin or Aspden was the eldest of the six children of Thomas Aspdin, a bricklayer living in the Hunslet district of LeedsYorkshire.
He was baptised on Christmas Day, By he had set up in business on his own in central Leeds. He must have experimented with cement manufacture during the next few years, because on 21 October he was granted the British Patent BP entitled An Improvement in the Mode of Producing an Artificial Stonein which he coined the term “Portland cement” by analogy with the Portland stone an oolitic limestone that is quarried on the channel coast of England, on the Isle of Portland in Dorset.
See below for the text of the patent.
Joseph Aspdin Memorial
Almost immediately after this, inin partnership with a Leeds neighbour, William Beverley, he set up a production plant for this product in Kirkgate, Josepu. Beverley stayed in Leeds, but Aspdin and his family moved to Wakefield about nine miles away at this point. He obtained a second patent, for a method of making lime, in The Kirkgate plant was closed in after compulsory purchase of the land by the Manchester and Leeds Railway Companyand the site was cleared.
He moved his equipment to a second site nearby in Kirkgate.
Joseph Aspdin | British mason |
At this time his eldest son James was working as an accountant in Leeds, and his younger son, Williamwas running the plant. Josfph, inJoseph went into partnership with James, and posted a notice that William had left, and that the company would not be responsible for his debts, stating “I think it right to give notice that my late agent, William Aspdin, is not now in my employment, and that he is not authorised to receive any money, nor contract any debts on my behalf or on behalf of the new firm.
InWilliam established his own plant at Rotherhithenear London. James moved to a third site at Ings Road inand this plant continued in operation until Joseph Aspdin died on 20 Marchat home in Wakefield.
NOW KNOW YE, that in compliance with the said proviso, I, the said Joseph Aspdin, do hereby declare the nature of my said Invention, and the manner in which the same is to be performed, are particularly described and ascertained in the following description thereof that is to say:. My method of making a cement or artificial stone for stuccoing buildings, waterworks, cisterns, azpdin any other purpose to which it may be applicable and which I call Asprin cement is as follows: I then take a specific quantity of argillaceous earth or clay, and mix them with water to a state approaching impalpability, either by manual labour or machinery.
After this proceeding I put the above mixture into a slip pan for evaporation, either by heat of the sun or by submitting it to the action of fire or steam conveyed in flues or pipe under or near the pan till the water is entirely evaporated.
Then I brake the said mixture into suitable lumps and calcine them in a furnace similar to a lime kiln till the carbonic acid is entirely expelled. The mixture so calcined is to be ground, beat, or rolled to a fine powder, and is then in a fit state for making cement or artificial stone. This powder is to be mixed with a sufficient quantity of water to bring it into the consistency uoseph mortar, and thus applied to the purposes wanted.
In witness whereof, I, the said Joseph Aspdin, have joaeph set my hand seal, this Fifteenth day of December, in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and twenty-four. And also the Specification aforesaid was stamped according to the tenor of the statute made for that purpose.
Inrolled josfph Eighteenth day of December, in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and twenty-four.
Portland stone was the most prestigious building stone in use in England at the time. The patent clearly does not describe the product recognised as Portland cement today. The product was aimed at the market for stuccos and architectural pre-cast mouldings, for which a fast-setting, low-strength cement was required see cement. The product belongs to the category of “artificial cements” that were developed to compete with Parker ‘s Roman cementand was similar to that developed much earlier by James Frost.
The process described is a “double burning” process in which the limestone is burned on its own first, then slaked, mixed with clay, and burned again. This was a common practice for manufacturers of both Artificial and Portland cements when only hard limestones were available. The grinding technology of the time consisted only of flat millstones, and it was more economic to comminute the limestone by burning and slaking than by grinding.
The limestone he used was the Pennine Carboniferous limestone of the area, which was used for paving in the towns and on the turnpike roads. The characteristic practise of the patent and of his lime patent is the use of “road sweepings” as a raw material. He says that if the sweepings are not available he obtains ‘the limestone itself”.
It is significant that Joseph Aspdin was twice prosecuted for digging up whole paving blocks from the local roads. Limestone supply was clearly a major headache for Aspdin in the days before stone could be brought in by rail. His son William’s innovation was to make a mix with a higher limestone content, to burn it at a higher temperature using more fuel, and to grind the hitherto-discarded hard clinkered material, hence increasing wear-and-tear in the grinding process.
However, William did not file for a patent on his modified process, and sometimes claimed his father’s patent. Nonetheless, he is credited with launching the “modern” Portland cement industry. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Retrieved 28 August Lea’s chemistry of cement and concrete 4th ed. Retrieved 26 March The cement industry, American Carpenter and Builder.