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It is considered a pluricentric language. MSA is based on classical Arabic, and differences between the two varieties of the language are directly related to modernizing and simplification, both in speaking and writing styles.
Classical Arabic, also known as Quranic Arabic although the term is not entirely accurateis the language used in ull Quran as well as in numerous literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times 7th to 9th centuries.
Many Muslims study Classical Arabic in order to read the Quran in its original language. It is important to note that written Classical Arabic underwent fundamental changes during the early Islamic era, adding dots to distinguish similarly written letters, and adding the Tashkeel jl markings that guide pronunciation by Abu al-Aswad al-Du’aliAl-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidiand other scholars.
Most printed material by the Arab League —including most books, newspapers, magazines, official documents, and reading primers for small children—is written in MSA. It was developed in the early part of the 19th century. They are not normally written, although a certain amount of literature particularly plays and poetry including songs exists in many of them. Literary Arabic MSA is the official language of all Arab League countries and is the only form of Arabic taught in schools at all stages.
Additionally, some Christian Arabic speakers recite prayers in it, as it is considered the literary language. People speak MSA as a third language if they speak other languages native to a country as their first language and colloquial Arabic dialects as their second language. Modern Standard Arabic is also spoken by people of Arab descent outside the Arab world when people of Arab descent speaking different dialects communicate to each other.
As there is a prestige or standard dialect of vernacular Arabic, speakers of standard colloquial dialects code-switch between these particular dialects and MSA. However, the exigencies of modernity have led to the adoption of numerous terms which would have been mysterious to a classical author, whether taken from other languages e. Modern Standard Arabic principally differs from Classical Arabic in three areas: On the whole, Modern Standard Arabic is not homogeneous; there are authors who write in a style very close to the classical models and others who try to create new stylistic patterns.
As diglossia is involved, various Arabic dialects freely borrow words from MSA, this situation is similar to Romance languageswherein scores of words were borrowed directly from formal Latin most literate Romance speakers were also literate in Latin ; educated speakers of standard colloquial dialects speak in this kind of communication.
Reading out loud in MSA for various reasons is becoming increasingly simpler, using less strict rules compared to CA, notably the inflection is omitted, making it closer to spoken varieties of Arabic. It depends on the speaker’s knowledge and attitude to the grammar of Classical Arabic, as well as the region and the intended audience. Pronunciation of native words, loanwords, foreign names in MSA is loose, names can be pronounced or even spelled differently in different regions and by different speakers.
Pronunciation also depends on the person’s education, linguistic knowledge and abilities.
Modern Standard Arabic – Wikipedia
Modern Standard Arabic, like Classical Arabic before it, has three pairs of long and short vowels: Sometimes with one value for each vowel in both short and long lengths or two different lughta for each short and long lengths. In Egypt, close vowels have different values; short initial or medial: Differences between Modern Standard Lu and Classical Arabic span the three categories of linguistics, which are syntax, terminology and pronunciation especially in terms of tashkeel.
Differences are also apparent in the use of punctuation and writing styles. It should be mentioned that Arabic speakers do not find a noteworthy difference between yl varieties, and may sometimes refer to both by the same name: MSA tends to use simplified structures and drop more complicated ones commonly used in Classical Arabic.
Some examples include reliance on verb sentences instead of noun phrases and semi-sentences, as well as avoiding phrasal kughat and accommodating feminine forms of ranks and job titles. This stems from the need of MSA to adapt with modern-day terminology in the technical, literary, and scientific domains. The vast majority of these terms refer to items or concepts that did not exist in lugat time of CA.
MSA tends to be more accepting to non-Arabic terminology. Despite the efforts of Arabic Language Academies in the second half of the 20th century to Arabize modern terminology using classical Arabization practices, the fast pace of modern development made transliteration the method arabiq choice for Arabizing modern day terminology. Modern Standard Arabic relies on transliteration to adopt modern day terminology. Modern Standard Arabic has adopted several punctuation marks from other languages, and dropped some arabiaa Arabic ones.
Modern technology, especially in printing press and the use of the Internet, has contributed largely to this trend . Modern Standard Arabic adopts modern writing forms, such as lughay, opinion articles, and technical reports, instead of classical ones.
Moreover, some new writing forms are directly imported from foreign languages, such as guides, blog posts, and other forms of writing. Moreover, some classical writing forms disappeared completely, such as Maqam. MSA is loosely uniform across the Middle East as it is based on the convention of Arabic speakers rather than being a regulated language which rules are followed that is despite the number of academies regulating Arabic. It can be thought of as being in a continuum between CA the regulated language described in grammar books and the spoken vernaculars while leaning much more to CA in its written form than its spoken form.
Regional variations exist due to influence from the spoken vernaculars. TV hosts who read prepared MSA scripts, for example in Al Jazeeraare ordered to give up national or ethnic pronunciations by changing their pronunciation of certain phonemes qrabia.
People who speak MSA also mix vernacular and Classical in pronunciation, aeabia, and grammatical forms. People who are literate in Modern Standard Arabic are primarily found in most countries of the Arab League. It may be assumed that the number of speakers of the language to be the number of literate people in this region, because it is compulsory in schools of most of the Arab League to learn Modern Standard Arabic.
People who are literate in the language are usually more so passivelyas they mostly use the language in reading and writing, not in speaking.
It is also spoken lughag Muslims in Northern Nigeria by people with Islamic education especially the Hausa and Fulani people.
Modern Standard Arabic
The countries with the largest populations that mandate MSA be taught in all schools are, with rounded-up numbers data from — From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the classical language, see Classical Arabic.
For the general article, see Arabic language. Old Arabic Classical Arabic. The only official language green ; one of the official languages blue.
Modern Standard Arabic phonology. Asia portal Africa portal Languages portal. The following are examples: A Comprehensive Grammar 2 ed. Uo Natural Language Processing: Journal of the American Oriental Society.
Archived from the original on Retrieved 22 September Classical Modern Standard Maltese [a]. Egyptian Chadian Sa’idi Sudanese. Bareqi Hejazi Sedentary Bedouin.
Afghani Khorasani Central Asian Arabic. Sicilian Arabic extinct ancestor of Maltese which is not part of the Arabic macrolanguage. Italics indicate extinct languages. West Semitic and Central Semitic languages. Eastern Egyptian and Peninsular Bedawi. Ge’ez Tigrinya Tigre Dahalik. Silt’e Wolane, Ulbareg, Inneqor Zay. Retrieved from ” https: Arabic languages Standard languages Diglossia Verb—subject—object languages.
Articles containing Arabic-language text Language articles citing Ethnologue 18 Language articles with speakers set to ‘none’ Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Views Read Edit View history.
Without proper rendering supportyou may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help: This article contains Arabic text. Without proper rendering supportyou may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. Look up Classical Arabic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up Modern Standard Arabic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Look up Fus-ha in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. East Semitic languages Akkadian Eblaite. Arabic Literary Classical Modern Standard.